A copy of this work was available on the public web and has been preserved in the Wayback Machine. The capture dates from 2021; you can also visit <a rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/pdf/2101.09858v1.pdf">the original URL</a>. The file type is <code>application/pdf</code>.
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In the recent years, there has been a shift in facial behavior analysis from the laboratory-controlled conditions to the challenging in-the-wild conditions due to the superior performance of deep learning based approaches for many real world applications.However, the performance of deep learning approaches relies on the amount of training data. One of the major problems with data acquisition is the requirement of annotations for large amount of training data. Labeling process of huge training<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2101.09858v1">arXiv:2101.09858v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fv3nwbr43vfvrlf655jipvhui4">fatcat:fv3nwbr43vfvrlf655jipvhui4</a> </span>
more »... ta demands lot of human support with strong domain expertise for facial expressions or action units, which is difficult to obtain in real-time environments.Moreover, labeling process is highly vulnerable to ambiguity of expressions or action units, especially for intensities due to the bias induced by the domain experts. Therefore, there is an imperative need to address the problem of facial behavior analysis with weak annotations. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of weakly supervised learning (WSL) approaches for facial behavior analysis with both categorical as well as dimensional labels along with the challenges and potential research directions associated with it. First, we introduce various types of weak annotations in the context of facial behavior analysis and the corresponding challenges associated with it. We then systematically review the existing state-of-the-art approaches and provide a taxonomy of these approaches along with their insights and limitations. In addition, widely used data-sets in the reviewed literature and the performance of these approaches along with evaluation principles are summarized. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges and opportunities along with the potential research directions in order to apply facial behavior analysis with weak labels in real life situations.
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