RESTORATION STUDIES ON PHASELIS HADRIAN GATE (KEMER, ANTALYA) THROUGH ARCHAEOMETRY
Mediterranean Arhaeology and Archaeometry
The Phaselis Hadrian Gate locating Kemer (Antalya, Turkey) has become the subject matter of the archaeometrical examinations conducted within the scope of the restoration & conservation project. The archaeometrical methods of physical, chemical and petrographical were applied to the samples from the monument that were examined to get their raw material characteristics (basic physical properties, binder/aggregate ratio, particle size distribution in aggregate, total soluble salt and types of
... lt and types of salt), mineralogical and chemical compositions, and microstructural properties (Optical Microscopy and XRF). The physical conditions of the building stone samples were determined by means of basic physical tests. Limestone samples were physically very weak in condition and also affected by past forest fires. Conductometric analyses were conducted to find out about the soluble salt content of the stones and their pH values. The total soluble salt contents of stones in weak basic condition had very high rate caused by environmental impacts. Aggregate/binder in mortar and the grain size distribution of aggregate were found by means of aggregate granulometric analysis. The total binder and sand sized aggregate compositions of the mortar samples were quite similar and 1:4 and 2:3 in ratio. The petrographical characteristics of the stone and mortar samples were determined by thin section optical microscope analysis. Ancient gate were limestone of the main rock group of local formation. The binder type of the mortars were lime and classified into three main groups petrographically. Micro-XRF analysis was carried out to determine the chemical composition of two ancient metal clamp pieces as iron and lead. The element analysis for stone, mortar as well as the soil sample was undertaken applying the PED-XRF analysis in order to characterize and determine the raw material origin of limestones and mortars. The types of the lime mortar, which makes up the binding structure of mortar samples, were assessed in terms of their hydraulic properties by the Cementation Index data.