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This paper presents a Data-gathering, Dynamic Duty-cycling (D3) protocol for wireless sensor networks. With a proposed duty-cycling MAC of high energy efficiency in D3, a routing scheme is naturally embedded to reduce protocol overhead. A packet can be forwarded in a pipelined fashion by staggering the sleep-wakeup schedules between two communicating nodes, which can significantly reduce end-to-end delay to meet real-time transmission requirements. To construct and maintain schedules, a gradedoi:10.3390/s20154071 pmid:32707806 pmcid:PMC7435929 fatcat:kztoho4nqfghxeh2jfxrqhhluy