Dynamic Streaming Spectral Sparsification in Nearly Linear Time and Space [article]

Michael Kapralov and Navid Nouri and Aaron Sidford and Jakab Tardos
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we consider the problem of computing spectral approximations to graphs in the single pass dynamic streaming model. We provide a linear sketching based solution that given a stream of edge insertions and deletions to a n-node undirected graph, uses Õ(n) space, processes each update in Õ(1) time, and with high probability recovers a spectral sparsifier in Õ(n) time. Prior to our work, state of the art results either used near optimal Õ(n) space complexity, but brute-force Ω(n^2)
more » ... very time [Kapralov et al.'14], or with subquadratic runtime, but polynomially suboptimal space complexity [Ahn et al.'14, Kapralov et al.'19]. Our main technical contribution is a novel method for 'bucketing' vertices of the input graph into clusters that allows fast recovery of edges of sufficiently large effective resistance. Our algorithm first buckets vertices of the graph by performing ball-carving using (an approximation to) its effective resistance metric, and then recovers the high effective resistance edges from a sketched version of an electrical flow between vertices in a bucket, taking nearly linear time in the number of vertices overall. This process is performed at different geometric scales to recover a sample of edges with probabilities proportional to effective resistances and obtain an actual sparsifier of the input graph. This work provides both the first efficient ℓ_2-sparse recovery algorithm for graphs and new primitives for manipulating the effective resistance embedding of a graph, both of which we hope have further applications.
arXiv:1903.12150v1 fatcat:55r4ia2nuzdbvjiwhaudzz4xse