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Challenging optimization problems, which elude acceptable solution via conventional calculus methods, arise commonly in different areas of industrial design and practice. Hard optimization problems are those who manifest the following behavior: a) high number of independent input variables; b) very complex or irregular multi-modal fitness; c) computational expensive fitness evaluation. This paper will focus on some theoretical issues that have strong implications for practice. I will stress howarXiv:1311.6041v3 fatcat:vn6fu6r7eba6ji7lskvrbuaes4