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To access and utilize the rich information contained in the biomedical literature, the ability to recognize and normalize gene mentions referenced in the literature is crucial. In this paper, we focus on improvements to the accuracy of gene normalization in cases where species information is not provided. Gene names are often ambiguous, in that they can refer to the genes of many species. Therefore, gene normalization is a difficult challenge. Methods: We define "gene normalization" as a seriesdoi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-s8-s5 pmid:22151999 pmcid:PMC3269940 fatcat:jrot7nsqxvaeferxkoybgrpcr4