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Electrical kindling refers to the seizure-generating properties of brain stimulation. In addition to producing epilepsy, the reorganization of forebrain neurocircuitry associated with kindling contributes to psychiatric disturbances involving fear and anxiety. The amygdala is a limbic structure that kindles readily and regulates the complex neurocircuitry underlying emotional responding. Dopamine-containing ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, known to be activated by threatening environmentaldoi:10.1523/jneurosci.19-22-j0004.1999 pmid:10559431 fatcat:fbn5grg7tfhizkx5tkvdg3yuru