AN9, a Petunia GlutathioneS-Transferase Required for Anthocyanin Sequestration, Is a Flavonoid-Binding Protein

Lukas A. Mueller, Christopher D. Goodman, Rebecca A. Silady, Virginia Walbot
2000 Plant Physiology  
AN9 is a glutathione S-transferase from petunia (Petunia hybrida) required for efficient anthocyanin export from the site of synthesis in the cytoplasm into permanent storage in the vacuole. For many xenobiotics it is well established that a covalent glutathione (GSH) tag mediates recognition of molecules destined for vacuolar sequestration by a tonoplast-localized ATP-binding cassette pump. Here we inquired whether AN9 catalyzes the formation of GSH conjugates with flavonoid substrates. Using
more » ... igh-performance liquid chromatography analysis of reaction mixtures containing enzyme, GSH, and flavonoids, including anthocyanins, we could detect neither conjugates nor a decrease in the free thiol concentration. These results suggest that no conjugate is formed in vitro. However, AN9 was shown to bind flavonoids using three assays: inhibition of the glutathione S-transferase activity of AN9 toward the common substrate 1-chloro 2,4-dinitrobenzene, equilibrium dialysis, and tryptophan quenching. We conclude that AN9 is a flavonoid-binding protein, and propose that in vivo it serves as a cytoplasmic flavonoid carrier protein.
doi:10.1104/pp.123.4.1561 pmid:10938372 pmcid:PMC59113 fatcat:upjuls3vrrbb3b4bpacp7bqqxa