Acute hyperglycemia exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and blunts cardioprotective effect of GIK
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Acute hyperglycemia exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and blunts cardioprotective effect of GIK. There is a close association between hyperglycemia and increased risk of mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, whether acute hyperglycemia exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury remains unclear. We observed the effects of acute hyperglycemia on MI/R injury and on the cardioprotective effect of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK). Male rats were
... bjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia and 6 h of reperfusion. Rats were randomly received one of the following treatments (at 4 ml ⅐ kg Ϫ1 ⅐ h Ϫ1 iv): Vehicle, GIK (GIK during reperfusion; glucose: 200g/l, insulin: 60 U/l, KCL: 60 mmol/l), HG (high glucose during ischemia; glucose:500 g/l), GIK ϩ HG (HG during I and GIK during R) or GIK ϩ wortmannin (GIK during R and wortmannin 15 min before R). Blood glucose, plasma insulin concentration and left ventricular pressure (LVP) were monitored throughout the experiments. Hyperglycemia during ischemia not only significantly increased myocardial apoptosis (23.6 Ϯ 1.7% vs. 18.8 Ϯ 1.4%, P Ͻ 0.05 vs. vehicle), increased infarct size (IS) (45.6 Ϯ 3.0% vs. 37.6 Ϯ 2.0%, P Ͻ 0.05 vs. vehicle), decreased Akt and GSK-3␤ phosphorylations (0.5 Ϯ 0.2 and 0.6 Ϯ 0.1% fold of vehicle, respectively, P Ͻ 0.05 vs. vehicle) following MI/R, but almost completely blocked the cardioprotective effect afforded by GIK, as evidenced by significantly increased apoptotic index (19.1 Ϯ 2.0 vs. 10.3 Ϯ 1.2%, P Ͻ 0.01 vs. GIK), increased myocardial IS (39.2 Ϯ 2.8 vs. 27.2 Ϯ 2.1%, P Ͻ 0.01 vs. GIK), decreased Akt phosphorylation (1.1 Ϯ 0.1 vs. 1.7 Ϯ 0.2%, P Ͻ 0.01 vs. GIK) and GSK-3␤ phosphorylation (1.4 Ϯ 0.2 vs. 2.3 Ϯ 0.2%, P Ͻ 0.05 vs. GIK). Hyperglycemia significantly exacerbates MI/R injury and blocks the cardioprotective effect afforded by GIK, which is, at least in part, due to hyperglycemia-induced decrease of myocardial Akt activation.