Chemotaxis and chemokinesis of human prostate tumor cell lines in response to human prostate stromal cell secretory proteins containing a nerve growth factor-like protein
The migration of three human prostate tumor epithelial cell lines (TSU-pr1, PC-3, DU-145) in response to secreted protein from a human prostate stromal cell line was investigated by using the modified blind-well Boyden chamber assay. Migrated cells were quantified by spectrophotometrically measuring the concentration of crystal violet stain extracted from their nuclei. Cell number was correlated linearly with the concentration of extracted crystal violet stain. All three tumor cell lines showed
... r cell lines showed intrinsic migratory ability in the absence of chemoattractants, such that approximately 1-7% of plated cells migrated across the filter of the Boyden chambers during a 5-h incubation period. Prostate tumor cell migration was significantly enhanced (3-13-fold) in response to stromal cell secretory protein in a dose-dependent manner, whereas bovine serum albumin had no effect on stimulating tumor cell migration. Immunoprecipitation of the stromal cell secreted protein with a nerve growth factor antibody partially and significantly reduced its stimulatory activity for tumor cell migration. A Zigmond-Hirsch matrix assay of tumor cell migration in response to various concentration gradients of stromal cell secreted protein demonstrated both chemotaxis and chemokinesis by all three cell lines. These results are consistent with the stromal cell secretory protein stimulation of chemokinetic tumor cell migration through the capsule of the prostate. Outside of the prostate gland metastasis of tumor cells may occur by chemotaxis to preferential sites containing chemoattractants similar to or related to maintenance factors that can substitute for components of stromal cell secretory protein.