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Utilization of natural shale formations for the creation of annular barriers in oil and gas wells is currently discussed as a mean of simplifying cumbersome plugging and abandonment procedures. Shales that are likely to form annular barriers are shales with high content of swelling clays and relatively low content of cementation material (e.g., quartz, carbonates). Shales with large content of quartz and low content of swelling clays will be rather brittle and not easily deformable. In thisdoi:10.3390/en14092342 doaj:6e1d5f4bf74c46c9b8baadc73afa8e07 fatcat:cf33jkbgyjfzvjm4bwgq5gxbge