Inflammation in HIV Positive Non Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients
Juniper Online Journal of Immuno Virology
HIV-1 infection is associated with dysregulation of cytokine production and this is thought to contribute to HIV associated immune deficiency. The dysregulation of cytokine production may be playing a role in the pathogenesis of HIV+ NHL, as evidenced by increased prevalence of NHL in HIV-1 infection. This study aimed to determine the serum concentrations of circulating inflammatory cytokines and the effect of cART in HIV positive NHL patients. Methods: The serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β,
... IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and TNF-α were determined by mesoscale discovery (MSD) assay in 141 subjects that were divided into 5 groups: naive HIV+ ; cART treated HIV+ ; HIV negative NHL; HIV+ NHL and healthy controls. Results: HIV+ NHL patients had higher serum concentrations of IL-4 as compared to NHL and HIV+ cART patients. As compared to NHL patients, the serum concentrations of IL-2, and TNF-α were significantly higher in HIV+ NHL patients, while those of IL-1β were significantly lower. HIV+ NHL patients had higher serum concentrations of IFN-γ, and IL-6; and lower serum concentrations of IL-12p70 than HIV+ cART patients. All the inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in NHL as compared to the controls, as well as in cART-naïve HIV+ patients as compared to HIV+ cART and controls. Conclusion: The serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines are increased in HIV positive NHL patients. This suggests that chronic inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Study population Study populations consisted of 141 participants divided into 5 groups consisting of HIV positive Non Hodgkin lymphoma (HIV+ NHL) patients (n=31), HIV negative NHL (NHL) patients (n=34), combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV positive (HIV+ cART) patients (n=32), cART-naïve HIV positive (cART-naïve HIV+ ) patients (n=28), and a healthy control group (Controls) (n=16). Participants were 18 years old and above, and were age and gender matched. Determination of serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines Meso-scale discovery (MSD) pro-inflammatory panel 1 (human) kit was used to determine the serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and TNF-α as follows. 50µl of the diluted samples (2 fold), calibrators and controls were added into each well respectively. The plate was sealed with an adhesive plate sealer and incubated at room temperature with shaking for 2 hours. Following the incubation, the plate was washed 3 times with 150µl/well of wash buffer. 25µl of the detection antibody solution was added into each well and the plate was sealed with adhesive plate sealer and incubated at room temperature with shaking for 2 hours. Following the incubation, the plate was washed 3 times with wash buffer. 150µl of 2x read buffer Twin was added into each well and the plate was read on the MSD instrument.