Fatty acid biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1) in Buffalo milk
Background: Nutritionally, buffalo milk is of immense importance due to high contents of fatty acid (FA), highly energetic and nutritive value. The composition of FA has been regarded as functional food component, which facilitate to manufacture a variety of processed milk products. Moreover, Buffalo milk contains more unsaturated FAs (UFA) such as oleic and linolenic acids, which have been shown to exert a number of physiological effects. However, inadequate information reported about the
... rted about the chemical composition and mechanism of FA synthesis in buffalo milk. Our conducted research hypothesize that, the expression of SCD1 gene could alter the biosynthesis of fatty acid (FA) in epithelial cells of mammary gland and subsequently affect the FA contents in buffalo milk. Present study investigated transcriptional and biological role of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1) in the buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) during FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Results: Results showed that unsaturated fatty acid contents are much higher in concentration in buffalo milk as compared to Holstein cow. Significantly, higher expression level of FAS, ACACA, SREBP1, PPARG, GPAT and AGPAT genes were also been observed with the expression of the SCD1 in buffalo milk. Moreover, studies showed that, SCD1 gene alteration in BMECs also causes the change in the expression of FA synthesis related genes mentioned above and subsequently affect the FA composition in the cells. Overexpression of SCD1 significantly increased the expression of genes associated with FA and TAG synthesis and also improved the FA and unsaturated FA contents in BMECs, while down-regulation of SCD1 appear opposite consequences. Conclusion: Thus, present study clearly demonstrated that, alteration in the expression of SCD1 plays an important role in FA and TAG synthesis and can directly or indirectly affect biosynthesis and metabolic pathways in BMECs and may be used as a symbol for important mechanism that contributes the characterization of buffalo milk.