SPOROTRICHUM SCHENCKII

KENNETH TAYLOR
1913 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)  
of human cases have come in from all sides until more than a hundred are on record. It is interesting to note the wide-spread opinion that many of the refractory cutaneous lesions diagnosed as syphilitic and tuberculous are due lo infection with Ihe sporothri.x. From the reports of human cases of pharyn¬ gitis due to this Organism and the involvement, of nearly every organ ill some of the experimental animals conies thé suspicion thai ils work may not, be confined lo the superficial abscess
more » ... rficial abscess usually caused in the human subject. DeBeurmann, who. will) bis associates, has probably done more systematic work' on the subject Iban any olbcr man, states thai be believes sporotrichosis deserves an important, place in human pathology. Moure found lhal 1 I per cent, of a series of surgical abscesses comino; limier bis observation were due to spornt lirix infection. The reports of spontaneous cases in rats, horses and iniiles and one case in a dog, together with experiments showing the saprophytic growth of the organism on vegetables and fruits ami the successful infection of young animals by mouth, are suggestive of the wide dis¬ tribution of the organism and of the ready opportunities for contracting the disease. The organism can usually lie recovered by ctirellelueiit ami cultivated on artificial mediums, but is demonstrated with difficulty in the direct preparations in which only ihe spores have been seen. .MOIil'IIOI.OIIV The morphology of the Bporothrix was lirsl, described in L898 by I!. IÎ. Schenck," who isolated it from an abscess on Ibe arm <i< a man suffering from Ihe infec¬ tion, lie describes a delicately segmented, branched mycélium of 1.6 to '.'.It microns in diameter, and spher¬ ical or Blightly ovoid spines. :i lo 5 microns long, show¬ ing small, unstained areas. In 1906 DeBeurmann and Gougerol began lo publish Ihe results of systematic work with the organism, which they have continued up to the present time. Within the past few months Delïeurniaim has published a review of his work to date, one of the most comprehensive sum¬ maries of the work on this disease.1" To Schenck's description he adds that the niycclia are curved, undu¬ lating, and usually parallel in arrangement, and that they produce few or no lateral spores, lie also states that the spores are scarce or often absent. DeBeurmann has described what he believes is a new species of spornt richuni, which has been given the specilie name lieiinuaiiiii. Matruchot, Pinny and Yiiillciuin"' have agreed with his conclusions. Together they base the establishment of the species lieiinuaiiiii on the Eollowing main points in which it is said to differ from Sporotrichum Scllenckii: (a) the presence of sac-like enlargements of the mycelium containing spherical bodies which slain with difficulty and appeal' to be spores (these enlargements DeBeurmann terms "chlamydospores") ; (b) Ibe greater number and pedunculate nature of the spores borne on the mycelium ; (c) the infrequent branching of the mycelium; (d) the lack of parallel arrangemenl of the mycelial threads described as characteristic of Sporotrichum schenckii,; (e) the fermentation of saccharose. The literature shows that some confusion has been caused by the creation of Ibis new species, which is regarded by most American investigators as insufficiently established, and many of the supposedly differential points have been found in my own studies lo be incon¬ stant or altogether lacking. Contrary to Ibe experience of most, other observers, llektoen and Perkins11 described a strain which showed Ibe spores attached In the mycelium by short pedicles. They gave an account, of Ihe development of the organ¬ ism with the elongation of the spore, and Ibe formation of lateral and terminal buds which develop into niycclia and, in turn bear both lateral ami apical spores. Garin" has described interesting involution forms in addition to the typical morphology. Ripal and Dalous18 have described the manner of mycelial development and the pedunculate nature of the spores and have noted Ibe vacuoles and moving granules in segments of ihe living mycelium. Gougerot2 has given an excellent technic for Ihe culti¬ vation of Ibe organism (Sporotrichum beurmanni), ami also for ilic diagnosis of the disease by bactériologie examination, supplemented by serum reactions of agglu¬ tination and complement fixai ion. Widal ami Abrami1 have described positive results with agglutinating serums and the group reactions wilh serums from cases of act inoinycosis. Arndt14 bas contributed a description of Ibe clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and a classification of Ihe forms of Ibe disease. . The following description of the form of the organism is based on my study of a strain isolated by Dr. .lohn M. Armstrong of St. Paul. Minn., from a case of human infection.1'"' and a second equine strain received from ibe University of Pennsylvania. While Ihe form of the bacterium varies greatly on different mediums, the unstained organism grown on dextrose glycerin agar has been selected as typical. The mycelium is enveloped by a thin membrane within which are clear, cylindrical vacuoles placed usually in *From the
doi:10.1001/jama.1913.04340150024007 fatcat:6tpn677v5jhwtpc2okosduf2ry