PROLAMINS OF WHEAT GRAIN – FROM BIOCHEMISTRY TO GENETICS AND BREEDING
Grain Economy of Russia
The paper describes the stages of studying the biochemical heterogeneity of gluten proteins of wheat grain as an important factor in the baking quality of flour. It has been shown that the biochemical heterogeneity of gluten proteins is caused by genetic factors. Modern electrophoretic methods on gel carriers make it possible to study the component protein composition of varieties, biotypes, lines, split hybrids and to identify the Mendelian units of the spectrum (genes, alleles). The
... les). The application of the idea of the genetic nomenclature of the hereditary unit of gliadins (a block of components) is over 40 years old, and it was proposed by domestic scientists (Kopus, Poperelya, Sozinov). This made it possible to compile catalogs of blocks of components (alleles), to study their correlation with quality, frost resistance and other traits, to develop a scale for combining gliadin blocks in the spectrum of varieties for the breeding assessment of samples from agro-nurseries. It has been established that electrophoregrams of prolamins serve as a reliable criterion to identify seed genotypes of commercial varieties by laboratory methods.