The role of human papillomaviruses in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the evidence

S. Liyanage, E. Segelov, S. Garland, S. Tabrizi, H. Seale, P. Crowe, D. Dwyer, A. Barbour, A. Newall, A. Malik, R. MacIntyre
2012 International Journal of Infectious Diseases  
with culture-confirmed melioidosis, and controls were patients admitted with non-infectious conditions during the same period, matched for gender, age, and presence or absence of diabetes mellitus (a major risk for melioidosis). A questionnaire was designed to record activities of daily living, and home visits were performed to obtain all sources of drinking water and culture this for the presence of B. pseudomallei. Results: Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis based on 288
more » ... ysis based on 288 cases and 515 controls showed that activities associated with a risk of melioidosis included working in a rice field (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.3), other activities associated with exposure to soil or water (cOR = 1.4; 95%CI 0.8-2.5), an open wound (cOR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3-3.3), eating food contaminated with soil or dust (cOR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0-2.2), drinking untreated water (cOR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being in the rain (cOR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), water inhalation (cOR = 2.4; 95%CI 1.6-3.8), current smoking (cOR = 1.6; 95%CI 1.0-2.4) and steroid intake (cOR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1-4.1). B. pseudomallei was detected in water source(s) consumed by 8% of cases and 4% of controls (cOR = 2.1; 95%CI 0.9-5.0). Conclusion: Inoculation, inhalation and ingestion are all important routes of B. pseudomallei infection. Our findings provide the basis for multi-facet evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of melioidosis.
doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2012.05.431 fatcat:d4q73fbyafbwhf4jfvjezi2x6e