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In recent years, the topic of contactless biometric identification has gained considerable traction due to the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the most well-known identification technologies is iris recognition. Determining the classification threshold for large datasets of iris images remains challenging. To solve this issue, it is essential to extract more discriminatory features from iris images. Choosing the appropriate loss function to enhance discrimination power is one of the most significantdoi:10.3390/a15040118 fatcat:6remvkerlba4zfcujimp3i46iy