Solubilization, Hansen Solubility Parameters, Solution Thermodynamics and Solvation Behavior of Flufenamic Acid in (Carbitol + Water) Mixtures
The solubilization, solution thermodynamics, solvation behavior and Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) of an anti-inflammatory medicine flufenamic acid (FFA) in various Carbitol + water mixtures were evaluated in this study. The experimental solubility of FFA in mole fraction (xe) was measured at T = 298.2–318.2 K and p = 0.1 MPa using a static equilibrium method. The xe values of FFA in various Carbitol + water mixtures were correlated with van't Hoff, Apelblat, Yalkowsky–Roseman,
... e and Jouyban–Acree–van't Hoff models. All the studied models showed good correlation with mean error values of less than 2%. The xe value of FFA was found to increase significantly with the increase in temperature and Carbitol mass fraction in all Carbitol + water mixtures evaluated. The maximum and minimum xe values of FFA were recorded in pure Carbitol (2.81 × 10−1) at T = 318.2 K and pure water (5.80 × 10−7) at T = 298.2 K, respectively. Moreover, the HSP of FFA was found to be more closed with that of pure Carbitol, indicating the maximum solubility of FFA in pure Carbitol. The estimated values of activity coefficients showed higher molecular interactions in FFA–Carbitol combinations compared with FFA–water combinations. Thermodynamic studies indicated an endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution of FFA in all Carbitol + water mixtures. The solvation behavior of FFA was observed as enthalpy driven in all Carbitol + water combinations evaluated.