Sensor Classification Using Convolutional Neural Network by Encoding Multivariate Time Series as Two-Dimensional Colored Images

Chao-Lung Yang, Zhi-Xuan Chen, Chen-Yi Yang
<span title="2019-12-27">2019</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper proposes a framework to perform the sensor classification by using multivariate time series sensors data as inputs. The framework encodes multivariate time series data into two-dimensional colored images, and concatenate the images into one bigger image for classification through a Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet). This study applied three transformation methods to encode time series into images: Gramian Angular Summation Field (GASF), Gramian Angular Difference Field (GADF),
more &raquo; ... d Markov Transition Field (MTF). Two open multivariate datasets were used to evaluate the impact of using different transformation methods, the sequences of concatenating images, and the complexity of ConvNet architectures on classification accuracy. The results show that the selection of transformation methods and the sequence of concatenation do not affect the prediction outcome significantly. Surprisingly, the simple structure of ConvNet is sufficient enough for classification as it performed equally well with the complex structure of VGGNet. The results were also compared with other classification methods and found that the proposed framework outperformed other methods in terms of classification accuracy.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010168">doi:10.3390/s20010168</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31892141">pmid:31892141</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC6982717/">pmcid:PMC6982717</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ib33nkidnresngaedqhfa2pcfy">fatcat:ib33nkidnresngaedqhfa2pcfy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191228021817/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/sensors/sensors-20-00168/article_deploy/sensors-20-00168.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/9b/d2/9bd2f60e9d37a1c37da659ada8583d3cb84e41a6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010168"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982717" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>