Clues for zoonotic potential and transmission of Sars-CoV-2 via food and water

Ahmet Gökhan COŞKUN, Seran TEMELLİ, Ayşegül EYİGÖR
2022 Journal of Istanbul Veterinary Sciences  
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which emerged from Wuhan, China in 2020, economic, social, and psychological problems occurred all over the world, mandating implementation of strict curfew, quarantine, travel restriction measures, and vaccinations against the virus. Though the source of the virus was not clearly revealed, initial case reports from a market in Huanan selling animal products, coupled with sequence analyses of the isolates, revealed close
more » ... rity to coronavirus isolated from bats (RatG13) and pangolins, questioning the suspect source of SARS-CoV-2 as zoonotic. Additionally, epidemiological and experimental studies indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2, and its specific antibodies in many animals such as cats, dogs, ferrets, calves, and deer. Besides, determination detecting the virus in water samples including treated waters from wastewater treatment plants, fecal shedding, and possible fecal-oral transmission of the virus gained importance. Accordingly, vegetables and fruits irrigated with contaminated water, and foods such as shellfish grown in contaminated waters had the risk of carrying the virus. Although one of the most effective ways for protection against SARS-CoV-2 is mass and booster vaccinations, the emergence of new variants raises concerns on vaccines' effectiveness against these variants. Thus, urgent implementation of one health concept addressing human, animal, and environmental health as a whole is mandatory to overcome this and other possible future pandemics. In this article, emergence, spread, zoonotic potential, fecal-oral transmission risk, and the possible role of food and water in the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus were reviewed based on up-to-date published data.
doi:10.30704/http-www-jivs-net.1072726 fatcat:pe4saxsxvrehherrxhupzclfdq