Intelligent Communication Module for Wireless Biosensor Networks
Source: Biosensors, Book edited by: Pier Andrea Serra, ISBN 978-953-7619-99-2, pp. 302, February 2010, INTECH, Croatia, downloaded from SCIYO.COM www.intechopen.com Biosensors 226 sink/base station (gateway) and receiving instructions from the sink/base station via a wireless network. The WBSN applications require low to medium data communication rates ranging from a few hundreds of Kbps to a few Mbps over a distance range of 10-30m and are categorized under IEEE 802.15.4a standard for wireless
... sensor networks (IEEE, 2009). A typical wireless biosensor network scenario is presented in Fig. 1 (a) . A modern biosensor node as presented in Fig. 1 (b) consists of a biosensor unit to sense the biological parameters and convert them into equivalent electric quantities. The low power digital signal processing unit analyses these signal and takes decisions according to the application and conditions. The radio block provides the wireless link for communication between the biosensor node and the central base station as well as other biosensor nodes. Information such as the current parameter measurement, the biosensor status and decisions taken are communicated between the biosensors and central base station. In the modern adhoc WBSNs, the decisions taken by a biosensor node are also dependent on this data communication and condition of the network as a whole. The actuator unit is commanded as per the decisions taken to take various actions. With the above functionality requirements from the various components of the WBSN, ultra low power consumption is the most critical design requirement as the biosensor nodes are battery operated. Every component of the WBSN node has to be designed for low power consumption as it directly affects the system reliability, efficiency and life. In a typical intelligent biosensor node which comprises of a sensing element, signal conditioning circuits, a processing element and a transceiver for communication, more than 50% of power is consumed by the transceiver, of which 80% is consumed by the receiver section (Karl & Willig, 2003) . This makes the design of the communication module and its receiver section very critical for WBSN applications. Hard cover, 302 pages Publisher InTech A biosensor is defined as a detecting device that combines a transducer with a biologically sensitive and selective component. When a specific target molecule interacts with the biological component, a signal is produced, at transducer level, proportional to the concentration of the substance. Therefore biosensors can measure compounds present in the environment, chemical processes, food and human body at low cost if compared with traditional analytical techniques. Bringing together researchers from 11 different countries, this book covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to biosensor technology, such as biosensor applications in the fields of drug discovery, diagnostics and bacteria detection, optical biosensors, biotelemetry and algorithms applied to biosensing.