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Secreted cytokines of the TGF␤ family are found in all multicellular organisms and implicated in regulating fundamental cell behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. Signal transduction involves complexes of specific type I and II receptor kinases that induce the nuclear translocation of Smad transcription factors to regulate target genes. Ligands of the BMP and Nodal subgroups act at a distance to specify distinct cell fates in a concentration-dependent manner.doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.01.008 pmid:24508081 fatcat:afc4qbcfgjcpvbxkvcvlanbafe