Tensor Network methods in many-body physics [thesis]

Andras Molnar
Strongly correlated systems exhibit phenomena -- such as high-T_c superconductivity or the fractional quantum Hall effect -- that are not explicable by classical and semi-classical methods. Moreover, due to the exponential scaling of the associated Hilbert space, solving the proposed model Hamiltonians by brute-force numerical methods is bound to fail. Thus, it is important to develop novel numerical and analytical methods that can explain the physics in this regime. Tensor Network states are
more » ... antum many-body states that help to overcome some of these difficulties by defining a family of states that depend only on a small number of parameters. Their use is twofold: they are used as variational ansatzes in numerical algorithms as well as providing a framework to represent a large class of exactly solvable models that are believed to represent all possible phases of matter. The present thesis investigates mathematical properties of these states thus deepening the understanding of how and why Tensor Networks are suitable for the description of quantum many-body systems. It is believed that tensor networks can represent ground states of local Hamiltonians, but how good is this representation? This question is of fundamental importance as variational algorithms based on tensor networks can only perform well if any ground state can be approximated efficiently in such a way. While any state can be written as a tensor network state, the number of parameters needed for the description might be too large. This is not the case for one-dimensional systems: only a few parameters are required to have a good approximation of their ground states; that, in turn, allows for numerical algorithms based on tensor networks performing well. The situation in two dimensions is somewhat more complicated, but it is known that ground states of local Hamiltonians can be expressed as tensor networks with sub-exponentially many parameters. In the present thesis, we improve on these existing bounds strengthening the claim that the language of [...]
doi:10.5282/edoc.24118 fatcat:twfm6mbn3zecjh6cz627bhak7e