The Modules of Mental Health Programs Implemented in Schools in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review
Background Secondary schools in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) provide promotional, preventive, and early treatment services. But the literature indicates that the modules of these services are either adapted or modified from existing mental health programs in developed countries. The literature also highlights the provision of non-comprehensive services (mental health promotion, prevention, and early treatment), in LMIC's such as Nigeria. These findings inform the need for
... this systematic literature review. The aim of the review was to identify modules of school based mental health programs that have been implemented in LMICs to guide the development of a culturally sensitive comprehensive mental health program for adolescents in a LMIC.Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement was used to guide this review. The following databases were searched in September 2018, to identify the relevant literature: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ERIC. The search was conducted by one of the authors and reviewed by two of the authors.Results Following the screening process, a total of 11 papers were identified and reviewed for quality. The systematic review highlighted that the mental health programs provided in schools included: introduction module, communication and relationship module, psychoeducation module, cognitive skills module, behavioral skills module, establishing social networks for recovery and help seeking behavioral activities and a summary/conclusion module.Conclusion The review shed light on the characteristics of the programs in LMIC. Two programs were universal in nature. Five programs were directed at key risk factors or at-risk groups and four were early intervention programs. The review also revealed that only one programs out of the 11 programs, included modules for parents. The synthesis indicated that all the identified programs were adapted or modified from existing programs. The dearth of comprehensive programs in LMIC was also revealed. The review also revealed modules that can be useful for developing a school based mental health program.