Fish consumption and CHD mortality: an updated meta-analysis of seventeen cohort studies
Public Health Nutrition
Objective: Results of studies on fish consumption and CHD mortality are inconsistent. The present updated meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the up-to-date pooling effects. Design: A random-effects model was used to pool the risk estimates. Generalized least-squares regression and restricted cubic splines were used to assess the possible dose-response relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the sources of heterogeneity. Setting: PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases
... Science databases up to September 2010 were searched and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion in the study. Subjects: Seventeen cohorts with 315 812 participants and average follow-up period of 15?9 years were identified. Results: Compared with the lowest fish intake (,1 serving/month or 1-3 servings/ month), the pooled relative risk (RR) of fish intake on CHD mortality was 0?84 (95 % CI 0?75, 0?95) for low fish intake (1 serving/week), 0?79 (95 % CI 0?67, 0?92) for moderate fish intake (2-4 servings/week) and 0?83 (95 % CI 0?68, 1?01) for high fish intake (.5 servings/week). The dose-response analysis indicated that every 15 g/d increment of fish intake decreased the risk of CHD mortality by 6 % (RR 5 0?94; 95 % CI 0?90, 0?98). The method of dietary assessment, gender and energy adjustment affected the results remarkably. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either low (1 serving/week) or moderate fish consumption (2-4 servings/week) has a significantly beneficial effect on the prevention of CHD mortality. High fish consumption (.5 servings/week) possesses only a marginally protective effect on CHD mortality, possibly due to the limited studies included in this group.