Nonlinear power loss in the oscillations of coated and uncoated bubbles: Role of thermal, radiation and encapsulating shell damping at various excitation pressures [post]

AJ Sojahrood, Hossein Haghi, Q. Li, T.M. Porter, R. Karshafian, Michael Kolios
2022 unpublished
<p>This study presents the fundamental equations governing the pressure dependent disipation mechanisms in the oscillations of coated bubbles. A simple generalized model (GM) for coated bubbles accounting for the effect of compressibility of the liquid is presented. The GM was then coupled with nonlinear ODEs that account for the thermal effects. Starting with mass and momentum conservation equations for a bubbly liquid and using the GM, nonlinear pressure dependent terms were derived for power
more » ... dissipation due to thermal damping (Td), radiation damping (Rd) and dissipation due to the viscosity of liquid (Ld) and coating (Cd). The pressure dependence of the dissipation mechanisms of the coated bubble have been analyzed. The dissipated energies were solved for uncoated and coated 2–20 μm in bubbles over a frequency range of 0.25fr-2.5fr (fr is the bubble resonance) and for various acoustic pressures (1 kPa-300 kPa). Thermal effects were examined for air and C3F8 gas cores. In the case of air bubbles, as pressure increases, the linear thermal model looses accuracy and accurate modeling requires inclusion of the full thermal model. However, for coated C3F8 bubbles of diameter 1–8 μm, which are typically used in medical ultrasound, thermal effects maybe neglected even at higher pressures. For uncoated bubbles, when pressure increases, the contributions of Rd grow faster and become the dominant damping mechanism for pressure dependent resonance frequencies (e.g. fundamental and super harmonic resonances). For coated bubbles, Cd is the strongest damping mechanism. As pressure increases, Rd contributes more to damping compared to Ld and Td. For coated bubbles, the often neglected compressibility of the liquid has a strong effect on the oscillations and should be incorporated in models. We show that the scattering to damping ratio (STDR), a measure of the effectiveness of the bubble as contrast agent, is pressure dependent and can be maximized for specific frequency ranges and pressures. </p>
doi:10.32920/21291033.v1 fatcat:e2xlegrsa5bqjg6nxheo6bzaby