Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Tissue of Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The Effects of Overweight and Obesity
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Background. Obesity is one of the major cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial dysfunction. We hypothesized that obesity affects cardiac function and morbidity by causing alterations in enzymatic redox patterns. Methods. Sixty-one patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were included in the study. Excessive right atrial myocardial tissue emerging from the operative connection to the extracorporeal circulation was harvested. Patients
... harvested. Patients were assigned to control (n=19, body mass index (BMI): <25 kg/m2), overweight (n=25, 25 kg/m2 < BMI < 30 kg/m2), or obese (n=17, BMI: >30 kg/m2) groups. Oxidative enzyme systems were studied directly in the cardiac muscles of patients undergoing CABG who were grouped according to BMI. Molecular biological methods and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to detect the expression and activity of oxidative enzymes and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results. We found increased levels of ROS and increased expression of ROS-producing enzymes (i.e., p47phox, xanthine oxidase) and decreased antioxidant defense mechanisms (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, heme oxygenase-1, and eNOS) in line with elevated inflammatory markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) in the right atrial myocardial tissue and by trend also in serum (sVCAM-1 and CCL5/RANTES). Conclusion. Increasing BMI in patients undergoing CABG is related to altered myocardial redox patterns, which indicates increased oxidative stress with inadequate antioxidant compensation. These changes suggest that the myocardium of obese patients suffering from coronary artery disease is more susceptible to cardiomyopathy and possible damage by ischemia and reperfusion, for example, during cardiac surgery.