The Chain of Chirality Transfer as Determinant of Brain Functional Laterality. Breaking the Chirality Silence: Search for New Generation of Biomarkers; Relevance to Neurodegenerative Diseases, Cognitive Psychology, and Nutrition Science

Victor V. Dyakin, Justin Lucas, Nika V. Dyakina-Fagnano, Eva V. Posner
2017 Neurology and Neuroscience Research  
Chirality The chiral, spiral and helical structures and shapes are seen in the morphology of many physical [15] and biological [16] systems including the spiraling of plants [17] the shape of the mammalian cochlea [18] , and the shape of human brain [8] . In any organism, the geometrical patterns are seen in a position of the heart and visceral organs [10] , and in the spatial distribution of brain activity [19] . Left-right asymmetry recognized as a fundamental property of the brain, evident
more » ... all levels of an organization, including molecular, cellular, morphological, and functional [20] [21] [22] [23] . At the same time, it is well known that the majority of biologically active molecules such as amino acids [22] , proteins [23], carbohydrates, II and phospholipids [24] are chiral. The ability of proteins to fold into the chiral sec- SciTeMed Abstract Biomolecules are the products of an evolutionary history. As a result, the phenomenon of molecular chirality is relevant to protein folding, neuronal proliferation, brain functional laterality, as well as the nature of cognition, consciousness, behavior, and psychiatry. Molecular chirality, discovered by Faraday (1846) and Pasteur (1848) , helped to reveal that the biochemistry of the living beings has a prevalent chirality. At present, the essence of biochirality is widely recognized, appreciated, and exploited in neuroscience and psychology. In a more general sense, molecular chirality is recognized as the universal "Force of Nature." From the formal geometrical perspective, a chain of chiral bifurcations is the chain of the chirality transfer between the molecular micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. Consequently, the symmetry is considered as a critical issue in the brain information processing. The fundamental laws of information theory reflect the relationship between entropy, symmetry and information. At the cellular level, signal transduction mechanism involves the wave of chiral transformations in the process of protein-protein, protein-phospholipids, and protein-DNA interactions. The symmetry dynamics at the molecular and cellular levels are considered in connection to the laterality o f cognitive functions. The abnormal symmetry dynamics viewed as a primary reason of an aggregation of mis-folded proteins in the neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. The molecular basis of the "symmetry evolution" in the biological systems is a question of interest. In this short review, we briefly summarize advances in the broad field of biochirality connecting two poles of the phenomena: the atomic orbitals and the brain's cognitive function. Analysis of current results allows introducing the new generation of entangled biomarkers ranging from the molecular chirality to laterality of cognitive and executive functions.
doi:10.24983/scitemed.nnr.2017.00028 fatcat:zsningm2f5eo5muqyaslw2p3di