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Sea ice comes in a variety of sizes and shapes depending on the mechanical and thermodynamical events it has undergone. New ice offers little resistance to the winds and currents, while deformed ice contains hummocks and ridges that influence how heat and momentum are transferred at the atmosphere-ice-ocean interfaces. In most climate models, the surface fluxes are determined from "bulk formulas" with constant drag coefficients based on roughness length estimates. Therefore, these formulationsdoi:10.5281/zenodo.4545426 fatcat:zopqjyzqnvgqbprzncyfg3mpqi