Review: Challenging Beijing's Mandate of Heaven: Taiwan's Sunflower Movement and Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement by Ming-sho Ho

Gina Tam
2019 Pacific Historical Review  
in the cacophony of multiple masculinist, nationalist, and socio-economically classed transnational discourses that often attempted to define the roles of women in colonial, nationalist, or empire-building enterprises. Chapter 3 provides a sense of how the biomedical and military fields attempted to regulate the U.S. military by preventing, diagnosing, surveilling and treating venereal disease. The main priority was not to protect Japanese female sex workers, but to protect the health and
more » ... ng vigor of the occupying U.S. male military. Modern hygienic protocols, new medications and technologies, scientific models of record keeping and reporting, and even basic prophylactic stations for soldiers were utilized by military physicians and public health officers. Chapter 4 examines how the medical/public health interventions tested in Japan were closely linked to discourses on moral reform, education, and rehabilitation. Chaplains, religious reformers, and feminist activists were constituencies that addressed morale, education, character guidance, and moral purification. The importance of honor, discipline, obedience, duty before pleasure, purity, and Christian mores were emphasized to male soldiers as they, in turn, reinforced the moral, racial, and civilizational superiority, purity, and destiny of the white patriarchal U.S. nation in its imperial aspirations. Kramm's book sheds important light on a period of U.S. occupation in Japan, forcing us to seriously think in a more complex, nuanced fashion about the multiple discourses, practices, and patterns that still persist in variation and repetition in U.S.-Japan relations today.
doi:10.1525/phr.2019.88.4.766 fatcat:l4avq2xauzcf5e34gysusfqkp4