Amorphous Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Solid-State Microbatteries
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) is a promising solid state electrolyte for solid state batteries due to its demonstrated high bulk ionic conductivity. However, crystalline LLTO has a relatively low grain boundary conductivity, limiting the overall material conductivity. In this work, we investigate amorphous LLTO (a-LLTO) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). By controlling the background pressure and temperature we are able to optimize the ionic conductivity to 3 × 10 −4 S/cm
... o 3 × 10 −4 S/cm and electronic conductivity to 5 × 10 −11 S/cm. XRD, TEM, and STEM/EELS analysis confirm that the films are amorphous and indicate that oxygen background gas is necessary during the PLD process to decrease the oxygen vacancy concentration, decreasing the electrical conductivity. Amorphous LLTO is deposited onto high voltage LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) spinel cathode thin films and cycled up to 4.8 V vs. Li showing excellent capacity retention. These results demonstrate that a-LLTO has the potential to be integrated into high voltage thin film batteries.