Microbiome and human aging (literature review)

Volodymyr Shyrobokov, Dmytro Yankovskyi, Halyna Dyment
The review is devoted to the relations between human microbiome and physiologic and pathologic processes an aging organism. Last years, there were obtained many convincing evidences of the huge microbiome influence on different processes of the human organism functioning, including behavior and brain biochemistry. Basing on these data, specialists consider the microbiome as an additional human organ that actively participates in digestion, management of metabolic processes, maintenance of
more » ... lial barrier integrity, development and strengthening the immune system and a number of other physiologic functions. Therefore, it optimizes conditions for the normal vital activity of the human organism on the whole. Many scientists consider aging as a chronic inflammatory process that is accompanied by unfavorable changes of the microbiome structure and functional activity. In most cases, age-related microbiome changes have negative influence on the health state, since they result in disorders of functional activity of microbe communities and failures of the metabolic chains that play the important role in functioning of many organs. It is well known that in elderly age, multiform interactions between the human organism and associated microbe communities undergo complicated changes, which may lead to strong phenotypic consequences, including dysbiosis, infections, psychosomatic diseases and general worsening of the organism functional state. It is assumed that an in-depth study of these processes with the development of age-related pathologies may facilitate the solution of many geriatrics problems. In the review, modern information is generalized that concerns composition and functional activity of the microbiota in aged people as well as the impact of the changed microbiome on disease development. There were analyzed research aimed at using some means of microbiome improvement at different age-related pathology. In the judgment of specialists, prevention of microbiome disturbances, beginning from young age, is one of most important protective measures for improving quality of life of the older population. In particular, there have been carried out many researches and their results confirm the reasonability of using probiotics for improving the state of health in elderly age. Probiotics were shown to beneficially influence the microbiome, general physical and mental state and immune status in elderly people. It is believed that regular using of probiotics favours maintaining homeostatic state of gut mucous membrane and microbiota, which is a critical component of mode of life aimed at longevity. Besides probiotics, perspective means for improving microbiome of elderly people are prebiotics, products of functional nutrition and enterosorbents. "Rejuvenation" of microbiome by virtue of wide using modern health-improving means might be one of means for prevention diseases, premature aging and an immense improvement of quality of life in advanced age. Key words: microbiome, aging, metabolites, inflammation, dysbiosis, immunity, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, enterosorbents. For citation: Shyrobokov VP, Yankovskyi DS, Dyment HS. Microbiome and human aging (literature review). Journal of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. 2019;25(4):463-75.
doi:10.37621/jnamsu-2019-4-463-475 fatcat:pgwjndu6jfbrlg6kcji2iulqxa