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Despite being coined only in the early 1970s, 'peer review' has become a powerful rhetorical concept in modern academic discourse, tasked with ensuring the reliability and reputation of scholarly research. Its origins have commonly been dated to the foundation of the Philosophical Transactions in 1665, or to early learned societies more generally, with little consideration of the intervening historical development. It is clear from our analysis of the Royal Society's editorial practices fromdoi:10.1017/s0018246x17000334 fatcat:nc7pm6fp45g2rh7iqhr7nqf2zi