Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators [chapter]

Hiroki Mutoh, Walther Akemann, Thomas Knöpfel
2015 Optical Probes in Biology  
Cell death is a critical process that occurs normally in health and disease. However, its study is limited due to available technologies that only detect very late stages in the process or specific death mechanisms. Here, we report the development of a new fluorescent biosensor called genetically encoded death indicator (GEDI). GEDI specifically detects an intracellular Ca 2+ level that cells achieve early in the cell death process and marks a stage at which cells are irreversibly committed to
more » ... sibly committed to die. The time-resolved nature of GEDI delineates a binary demarcation of cell life and death in real time, reformulating the definition of cell death. We demonstrate that GEDI acutely and accurately reports death of rodent and human neurons in vitro, and show GEDI enables a novel automated imaging platform for single cell detection of neuronal death in vivo in zebrafish larvae. With a quantitative pseudo-ratiometric signal, GEDI facilitates highthroughput analysis of cell death in time lapse imaging analysis, providing the necessary resolution and scale to identify early factors leading to cell death in studies of neurodegeneration.
doi:10.1201/b18007-11 fatcat:rvyhuer2a5dwrdfxlxhm6bktwi