PSR framework applied to the coastal management of "Complexo Estuarino-Lagunar Iguape-Cananéia" – CELIC (São Paulo, Brazil), in terms of sanitation and public health

Lucas G. Morais, Denis M. S. Abessa
2014 Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada  
The Coastal Zone (CZ) is of great importance in maintaining natural resources and life. This region presents multiple anthropic activities of economic, social and environmental interest, which can be potentially harmful to natural ecosystems. Furthermore, it is estimated that one third of the world's population inhabits the CZ. In Brazil, neither the intensification of CZ activities nor population growth have frequently been followed by the implementation of the basic infrastructure required,
more » ... ructure required, which has caused the CZ to become an area with conflicts of interest and uses. In this study, the Complexo Estuarino-Lagunar Iguape-Cananéia (CELIC) region was chosen for an analysis of basic sanitary conditions, because it presents a profile that is unique along the São Paulo coast. This region was chosen in an attempt to understand whether it is managed in a way that promotes both quality of life and a healthy environment. To achieve that, information on different indicators involving sanitation, the healthcare system, the population, the economy and the environment were collected from public databases and the pressure-state-response (PSR) framework was used to integrate all of the collected information. The study presents relatively mild pressures when compared to other coastal regions from the state of São Paulo, although in CELIC, pressures present an increasing pattern. Status indicators show that there are structural deficiencies in terms of basic needs, such as health and sanitation. Government responses, however, have not addressed these problems, especially the health issues. Though the local economy has evolved consistently, the current status of sanitation and health structures reveals failings in these services, a situation which shows that economic gains did not effectively result in improvements to these structures. Thus, despite favorable conditions (low population size, the presence of protected areas, and the concentration of the population in urban areas), which should facilitate the planning and management of the aforementioned institutions, the pressure seems to keep increasing. It has resulted in a scenario in which the lack of infrastructure for healthcare and sanitation stand out and there seems to be a lack of political initiative toward actions that aim to mitigate or resolve the problems. RESUMO Modelo PSR aplicado na gestão costeira do "Complexo Estuarino-Lagunar Iguape-Cananéia" -CELIC (São Paulo, Brasil), em termos de saneamento e saúde pública A zona costeira (ZC) é uma região de características únicas e de grande relevância à manutenção dos recursos e da vida, e que representa um local onde se desenvolvem diversas atividades de grande interesse econômico, social e ambiental. O crescimento populacional e a intensificação das atividades desenvolvidas na ZC brasileira geralmente não são acompanhados pela instalação das infraestruturas básicas necessárias, transformando essa região em um cenário de conflitos de interesses e usos. No estado de São Paulo o Plano Estadual de Gerenciamento Costeiro (PEGC) divide a ZC paulista em: Litoral Norte, Baixada Santista, Complexo Estuarino-Lagunar de Iguape-Cananeia (CELIC) e Vale do Ribeira. No presente estudo escolheu-se a região do CELIC para análise das condições de saneamento básico, por apresentar um perfil diferente do restante do litoral paulista; e com a finalidade de compreender se nessa região do litoral existe uma gestão que efetivamente
doi:10.5894/rgci455 fatcat:z265y5tnybdbfped5jlnjbuyra