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Most current approaches to concurrency control in database systems rely on locking of data objects as a control mechanism. In this paper, two families of nonlocking concurrency controls are presented. The methods used are "optimistic" in the sense that they rely mainly on transaction backup as a control mechanism, "hoping" that conflicts between transactions will not occur. Applications for which these methods should be more efficient than locking are discussed.doi:10.1145/319566.319567 fatcat:ps5xuxmhk5f67mm4dngh2u3wbm