Uses of Radiological Imaging in Retinoblastoma [chapter]

Fahad Albader, Dalal Fatani
2019 Retinoblastoma - Past, Present and Future [Working Title]  
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in children. Diagnosing retinoblastoma relies mainly on the clinical appearance of the lesion and not on histological description. Although histology still remains the gold standard in evaluation of tumor extension and progression risk factor, a tumor biopsy carries high risk of dissemination and is difficult to obtain. Retinoblastoma has characteristic clinical features of creamy-white mass associated with subretinal fluids and may be
more » ... accompanied by retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. There are many factors contributing to metastatic risk factors like postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, scleral and choroidal invasion, and peribulbar fat invasion. Ancillary testing is necessary for any patient with a suspected retinoblastoma to assess the dimensions of the tumor as well as the tumor extension. An ultrasonography (B scan) will show the mass dimensions as well as the hyperechoic calcifications, which are commonly present with retinoblastoma. CT scan is not the modality of choice for diagnosis of retinoblastoma in children because of the radiation exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the examination of choice to assess the tumor extension as it has high soft tissue contrast. The use of MRI changed the accuracy of assessing metastatic risk factors as the results yielded before and after the use of MRI differed. This chapter will address the use of radiological imaging in retinoblastoma defining diagnostic characteristics and identifying parameters of metastatic risk factor assessment. This chapter will also include evidence-based review on the efficacy of radiological imaging of retinoblastoma and its impact on the choice of treatment and disease prognosis.
doi:10.5772/intechopen.86828 fatcat:wpe47yph4zgorlccmtzvjjg6ri