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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer (1, 2) is a well-established treatment modality that uses light excitation of a photosensitive substance to produce oxygen-related cytotoxic intermediates, such as singlet oxygen or free radicals (3, 4). Although PDT is advantageous over other forms of cancer treatments because of its limited side effects, its main disadvantage is the poor accessibility of light to more deeply lying malignancies. External light sources such as lasers or lamps can be appliedpmid:12702568 fatcat:u2fszpdnuzccbjzcaxcd3cmttq