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Synopsis Historically, the use of cutting-edge molecular techniques to study immunological gene expression and related cellular pathways has been largely limited to model organisms. Few studies have been performed that quantify the molecular immunological responses of non-model species, especially in response to environmental factors, life-history events, or exposure to parasites. This dearth of information has largely occurred due to the lack of available non-model species-specific genedoi:10.1093/icb/icu023 pmid:24812328 fatcat:bfr5uaoczzf7jjl3ifccn4lq7y