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E-commerce systems have usually been processed by credit cards and public certificate via web sites where the client passes through web proxy server or the route of proxy server. In these systems, private information such as credit card numbers and passwords need to be protected by SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or TLS (Transport Layer Security) encryption. But private information is still vulnerable to sniffing attacks through changing certificates of proxy servers, which is called the attackingdoi:10.1109/bigcomp.2014.6741427 dblp:conf/bigcomp/LeePLKJ14 fatcat:bwg7zkdo6jce5jc4dw4bisvddi