The Immunogenicity of Hyaluronic Fillers and Its Consequences

Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Natalia Zdanowska, Ewa Wygonowska, Waldemar Placek
2021 Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology  
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan, a natural component of the extracellular matrix. The identical structure of the molecule in all living organisms is its main advantage, as it translates into the minimal probability of immunogenicity. Therefore, it is the closest to the ideal preparation used as a filler, due to its biocompatibility and stability at the site of implantation. This paper includes the discussion of the potential mechanisms of adverse immune reactions to HA along with
more » ... mechanisms of reaction following vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2. Based on the literature, we tried to systematize adverse immune reactions with systemic manifestations to HA. The occurrence of unpredictable reactions to hyaluronic acid indicates that they may not be treated as neutral or non-allergenic. The modifications of the chemical structure of HA, additives and individual tendencies in a patient may be the cause of unpredictable reactions, leading to serious health consequences. Preparations of unknown origin, poorly purified, or including bacterial DNA are particularly dangerous. Therefore, long-lasting follow-up of the patient and the selection of a preparation approved by the FDA or EMA are of high importance. Patients are often unaware of the consequences of cheaper procedures performed by persons without suitable knowledge with the use of unregistered products, so the public should be educated and legal regulations should be introduced.
doi:10.2147/ccid.s316352 fatcat:4iaep2qccrbg5ep3bpjguz773q