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Spironolactone dose‑dependently alleviates the calcification of aortic rings cultured in hyperphosphatemic medium with or without hyperglycemia by suppressing phenotypic transition of VSMCs through downregulation of Pit‑1
Molecular Medicine Reports
Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in patients with end stage renal disease and is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinical observations have demonstrated that hyperphosphatemia and hyperglycemia can accelerate VC. Spironolactone (SPL) has been proven to improve cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials and its protective effect on VC has been reported recently; however, the underlying mechanisms are notdoi:10.3892/mmr.2019.10039 fatcat:zkykvrsofjgkdhwny4smky2pha