Intrahematomal Ultrasound Enhances RtPA-Fibrinolysis in a Porcine Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Julia Masomi-Bornwasser, Axel Heimann, Christian Schneider, Tristan Klodt, Hammoud Elmehdawi, Andrea Kronfeld, Harald Krenzlin, Yasemin Tanyildizi, Karl-Friedrich Kreitner, Oliver Kempski, Clemens Sommer, Florian Ringel (+1 others)
2021 Journal of Clinical Medicine  
Catheter-based ultrasound-thrombolysis has been successfully used in a small clinical trial in order to enhance recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)-fibrinolysis, for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs). The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-early effects of ultrasound on hematoma and the surrounding brain tissue in a porcine ICH-model. To achieve this, 21 pigs with a right frontal ICH were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) drainage (n = 3),
more » ... (2) drainage + rtPA (n = 6), (3) drainage + ultrasound (n = 6), and (4) drainage + ultrasound + rtPA (n = 6). The hematoma volume assessment was performed using cranial MRI before and after the treatments. Subsequently, the brain sections were analyzed using HE-staining and immunohistochemistry. The combined treatment using rtPA and ultrasound led to a significantly higher hematoma reduction (62 ± 5%) compared to the other groups (Group 1: 2 ± 1%; Group 2: 30 ± 12%; Group 3: 18 ± 8% (p < 0.0001)). In all groups, the MRI revealed an increase in diffusion restriction but neither hyper- or hypoperfusion, nor perihematomal edema. HE stains showed perihematomal microhemorrhages were equally distributed in each group, while edema was more pronounced within the control group. Immunohistochemistry did not reveal any ultra-early side effects. The combined therapy of drainage, rtPA and ultrasound is a safe and effective technique for hematoma-reduction and protection of the perihematomal tissue in regard to ultra-early effects.
doi:10.3390/jcm10040563 pmid:33546160 fatcat:aawenhgrtvemtcmxm33duyzppm