The Place and Value of Critical Reflection in Work Integrated Learning for Sport Management Students
The purpose of this research was to examine the role of critical reflection in a (vocational) sport management internship in the Netherlands. Social constructivism provided the theoretical framework as it takes into consideration the emotional, social, cultural and political contexts of the work integrated learning environment (WIL) to which interns are exposed to and identifies the central active role the student has in the learning process. The study employs a sequential mixed methods design
... xed methods design consisting of a quantitative (Study 1) and a qualitative phase (Study 2, Study3 and Study 4). Within Study 1, the three key stakeholders of WIL (students, educators and WIL-supervisors) were recruited from 20 out of 25 vocational sport management institutes in the Netherlands. Students within these institutes were enrolled in a four year full time program which leads to a Diploma in Operational Sport and Exercise Management. The web-based survey was completed by 113 third year students, 122 fourth year students, 25 educators and 45 WIL-supervisors / possible future employers. Study 1 adopted a quantitative methodology to assess the relationship between students' self-perceived ability to critically reflect. The assessment was operationalised in three individual and three social learning dimensions, and their critical reflection as assessed by the WIL-supervisor and their educational institution. Additionally, the perceived importance of a student's critical reflection was compared by each of the key stakeholders groups by responding to open-ended questions. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), a one way of between groups' analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the relevant post hoc tests were used to analyse the data.