The loss of enzymatic activity of the PHARC associated lipase ABHD12 results in increased phagocytosis that causes neuroinflammation [article]

Shubham Singh, Siddhesh S Kamat
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
Phagocytosis is an important evolutionary conserved process, essential for clearing pathogens and cellular debris in higher organisms, including humans. This well-orchestrated innate immunological response is intricately regulated by numerous cellular factors, important amongst which, are the immunomodulatory lysophosphatidylserines (lyso-PSs) and the pro-apoptotic oxidized phosphatidylserines (PSs) signaling lipids. Interestingly, in mammals, both these signaling lipids are physiologically
more » ... lated by the lipase ABHD12, mutations of which, cause the human neurological disorder PHARC. Despite the biomedical significance of this lipase, detailed mechanistic studies and the specific contribution of ABHD12 to innate processes like phagocytosis remain poorly understood. Here, by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence approaches, using the murine model of PHARC, we show, that upon an inflammatory stimulus, activated microglial cells in the cerebellum of mice deficient in ABHD12 have an amoeboid morphology, increased soma size, and display heightened phagocytosis activity. We also report that upon an inflammatory stimulus, cerebellar levels of ABHD12 increase to possibly metabolize the heightened oxidized PS levels, temper phagocytosis and in turn control neuroinflammation during oxidative stress. Next, to complement these findings, using biochemical approaches in cultured microglial cells, we show that the pharmacological inhibition and/or genetic deletion of ABHD12 results in increased phagocytic uptake in a fluorescent bead uptake assay. Together, our studies provide compelling evidence that ABHD12 plays an important role in regulating phagocytosis in cerebellar microglial cells, and provides a possible explanation, as to why human PHARC subjects display neuroinflammation and atrophy in the cerebellum.
doi:10.1101/2021.08.22.457059 fatcat:klojox5a7neajmxam5taeniwrm