Supplementary Material for: Left Ventricular Mass Progression despite Stable Blood Pressure and Kidney Function in Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease
Background/Aims: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with worsening cardiovascular (CV) risk not explained by traditional risk factors. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is an important CV risk factor, but its progression has not been documented in early CKD. We explored whether progression of LVH in early CKD would occur despite stable kidney function. Methods: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a 12-month study of lanthanum carbonate in stage 3 CKD, which included
... gitudinal assessments of CV biomarkers. Primary outcome for the analysis was the change in LV mass (LVM) indexed to height in meters2.7 (LVM/Ht2.7). Secondary outcomes were changes in blood pressure (BP), pulse-wave velocity, LV systolic/diastolic function, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), klotho, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: Thirty-one of 38 original subjects had sufficient data for analysis. LVM/Ht2.7 increased (47 ± 13 vs. 53 ± 13 g/m2.7, p = 0.006) over 12 months despite stable BP, stable eGFR and normal LV systolic function. Vascular stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction persisted throughout the study. Klotho levels decreased (748 ± 289 to 536 ± 410 pg/ml, p = 0.03) but were unrelated to changes in LVM/Ht2.7. The change in FGF23/klotho ratio was strongly correlated with changes in LVM/Ht2.7 (r2 = 0.582, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Subjects with stage 3 CKD exhibited increasing LVM, persistent LV diastolic dysfunction and vascular stiffness despite stable kidney function, BP and LV systolic function. Abnormal FGF23 signaling due to reduced klotho expression may be associated with increasing LVM. These findings deserve further evaluation in a larger population given the adverse prognostic value of these CV biomarkers.