Super Liquid Crystalline Polysaccharides Produced by Ultimately-ecological Microreactors

Tatsuo Kaneko, Maiko K. Okajima
2018 Yakugaku zasshi  
Cyanobacteriaˆx carbon dioxide and nitrogen from the atmosphere using solar energy to produce various biomolecules, and thus are regarded as ultimately ecological microreactors. Sacran is a cyanobacterial polysaccharide with a very high molecular weight of 29 Mg/mol, which is extracted from Aphanothece sacrum cyanobacterium masscultivated in freshwater environments such as river or spring. Sacran is a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide comprising more than 6 kinds of sugar residues and contains
more » ... sidues and contains 12% sulfate anionic groups and 27% carboxyls. Sacran has a super-absorbent function of water, which can retain 6000 mL for 1 g specimen, due to very long hydrating chains. The value is much higher than hyaluronic acid or conventional super-absorbent polymers. Sacran exhibits self-orienting behavior in dilute solution at a concentration range over 0.25 wt%, which is quite low when compared with conventional liquid crystalline polysaccharides. Mesogenic helical chains of sacrans have extremely high aspect ratios of 1600 for highly persistent lengths of 32 micrometer. Through the liquid crystallinity, sacran solution shows a shear-thinning behavior and the solution spread over a substrate such as biological skin very e‹ciently to create a thin layer. Applied on atopic dermatitis skin sacran solution exerts excellent moisturizing eŠect and anti-itching action.
doi:10.1248/yakushi.17-00201-1 pmid:29607994 fatcat:dj3bb7ukanhfjmqkpxgvap3dva