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Integrating Factors and Repeated Roots of the Characteristic Equation

2012
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CODEE Journal
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Most texts on elementary differential equations solve homogeneous constant coefficient linear equations by introducing the characteristic equation; once the roots of the characteristic equation are known the solutions to the differential equation follow immediately, unless there is a repeated root. In this paper we show how an integrating factor can be used to find all of the solutions in the case of a repeated root without depending on an assumption about the form that these solutions will

doi:10.5642/codee.201209.01.13
fatcat:d2egyo43t5fvlkuz6io4ip5hum