Children with Cystic Fibrosis Produce an Immune Response against Exoenzyme S, a Type III Cytotoxin ofPseudomonas aeruginosa

Bruce Banwart, Mark L. Splaingard, Philip M. Farrell, Michael J. Rock, Peter L. Havens, Joel Moss, Mary E. Ehrmantraut, Dara W. Frank, Joseph T. Barbieri
2002 Journal of Infectious Diseases  
To the Editor-In a recent article, Thio et al. [1] sought to determine whether DQB1*0301 and other HLA class II alleles were associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance and persistence in 3 multiethnic cohorts. The results of their analyses confirmed the previously documented association of DQB1*0301 and other HLA class II alleles with viral clearance [2]. Furthermore, Thio et al. hypothesized that the inconsistencies in the association between HLA class II alleles and HCV clearance found
more » ... HCV clearance found in earlier studies could be due to ethnic differences [1]. They reported that the association of DQB1*0301 and other HLA class II alleles with HCV clearance or persistence differed by ethnic identity. Finally, they emphasized the importance of studying genetic associations in an ethnically diverse cohort. These authors' hypotheses, conclusions, and recommendations imply that race modifies the association between HLA class II alleles and HCV clearance or persistence, yet they did not present any formal assessment of effect modification. Formal assessment of effect modification is crucial if the differences between stratum-specific estimates are a primary focus of the study. Because of the race-matched case-control design of this study [1], effect modification by race can be assessed only on the multiplicative scale (the heterogeneity of
doi:10.1086/338197 pmid:11807706 fatcat:emr67lerufhv7htiq3jpnixnai