Wild Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus and trout Salmo trutta: hosts and reservoir of the salmonid pathogen Spironucleus salmonicida (Diplomonadida; Hexamitidae)

A Jørgensen, K Torp, MA Bjørland, TT Poppe
2011 Diseases of Aquatic Organisms  
Spironucleus salmonicida is a diplomonad flagellate known to cause systemic infections in farmed salmonids. In northern Norway, outbreaks of spironucleosis in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar have been a recurring problem. Common to all these outbreaks was the origin of smolts: all came from the same farm. In the present study, wild Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout Salmo trutta were sampled from the lakes used as a water source for the smolt supplier. In addition, smolt and
more » ... -spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus were sampled from the smolt farm. Bile and intestinal contents from the sampled fish were examined by light microscopy and PCR. Spironucleus salmonicida was identified in both wild Arctic char and brown trout from the lakes used as water sources by the smolt farm, suggesting that the farmed fish were exposed to this pathogen before transfer to the sea. Spironucleus barkhanus and Spironucleus salmonis were also identified in the sampled fish. The present study also demonstrated that infections with multiple Spironucleus species are present in wild salmonids. No indications of disease related to diplomonad infections were observed in the wild fish, suggesting that wild salmonids are reservoir hosts of Spironucleus salmonicida. KEY WORDS: Co-infection · Farmed Atlantic salmon · Fish disease · Hatchery · Protozoa · Spironucleosis · SSU rDNA Resale or republication not permitted without written consent of the publisher OPEN PEN ACCESS CCESS
doi:10.3354/dao02404 pmid:22235595 fatcat:sw2xqfqncjbdzclnnpxnddy7t4